Poems on Several Occasions: Written by Dr. Thomas Parnell, Late Arch-Deacon of Clogher: and Published by Mr. Pope. London: printed for B. Lintot, 1722 [1721]. [8],221,[3]p.; 8⁰. (ESTC T42652; Foxon p. 554; OTA K041605.000)

  • POEMS ON Several Occasions.

    Written by Dr. THOMAS PARNELL, Late Arch-Deacon of Clogher: AND Published by Mr. POPE.

    Dignum laude Virum Musa vetat mori. HOR.

    LONDON: Printed for B. LINTOT, at the Cross-Keys, between the Temple Gates in Fleet-street, 1722.

  • TO THE Right Honourable, ROBERT, Earl of OXFORD AND Earl MORTIMER.

    SUCH were the Notes, thy once-lov'd Poet sung,
    'Till Death untimely stop'd his tuneful Tongue.
    Oh just beheld, and lost! admir'd, and mourn'd!
    With softest Manners, gentlest Arts, adorn'd!
    [Page]
    Blest in each Science, blest in ev'ry Strain!
    Dear to the Muse, to HARLEY dear — in vain!
    For him, thou oft hast bid the World attend,
    Fond to forget the Statesman in the Friend;
    For Swift and him, despis'd the Farce of State,
    The sober Follies of the Wise and Great;
    Dextrous, the craving, fawning Crowd to quit,
    And pleas'd to 'scape from Flattery to Wit.
    Absent or dead, still let a Friend be dear,
    (A Sigh the Absent claims, the Dead a Tear)
    Recall those Nights that clos'd thy toilsom Days,
    Still hear thy Parnell in his living Lays:
    Who careless, now, of Int'rest, Fame, or Fate,
    Perhaps forgets that OXFORD e'er was Great;
    Or deeming meanest what we greatest call,
    Beholds thee glorious only in thy Fall.
    [Page]
    And sure if ought below the Seats Divine
    Can touch Immortals, 'tis a Soul like thine:
    A Soul supreme, in each hard Instance try'd,
    Above all Pain, all Anger, and all Pride,
    The Rage of Pow'r, the Blast of publick Breath,
    The Lust of Lucre, and the Dread of Death.
    In vain to Desarts thy Retreat is made;
    The Muse attends thee to the silent Shade:
    'Tis hers, the brave Man's latest Steps to trace,
    Re-judge his Acts, and dignify Disgrace.
    When Int'rest calls off all her sneaking Train,
    When all th' Oblig'd desert, and all the Vain;
    She waits, or to the Scaffold, or the Cell,
    When the last ling'ring Friend has bid farewel.
    Ev'n now she shades thy Evening Walk with Bays,
    (No Hireling she, no Prostitute to Praise)
    [Page]
    Ev'n now, observant of the parting Ray,
    Eyes the calm Sun-set of thy Various Day,
    Thro' Fortune's Cloud One truly Great can see,
    Nor fears to tell, that MORTIMER is He.
    A. POPE.
    Sept. 25. 1721.
  • [Page 18][Page 21][Page 23][Page 32][Page 46]

    PERVIGILIUM VENERIS.

    CRAS amet, qui numquam amavit; Quique amavit, cras amet.
    Ver novum, ver jam canorum: vere natus orbis est,
    Vere concordant amores, vere nubent alites,
    Et nemus comam resolvit de maritis imbribus.
    Cras amorem copulatrix inter umbras arborum
    Implicat gazas virentes de flagello myrteo.
    Cras Dione jura dicit, fulta sublimi throno.
    [Page 48]
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Tune liquore de superno, spameo ponti e globo,
    Caerulas inter catervas, inter & bipedes equos,
    Fecit undantem Dionen de maritis imbribus.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 50]
    Ipsa gemmas purpurantem pingit annum floribus,
    Ipsa surgentis papillas de Favonî spiritu,
    Urguet in toros tepentes; ipsa roris lucidi,
    Noctis aura quem relinquit, spargit umentis aquas,
    Et micant lacrymae trementes decidivo pondere.
    Gutta praeceps orbe parvo sustinet casus suos.
    In pudorem florulentae prodiderunt purpurae.
    Umor ille, quem serenis astra rorant noctibus.
    Mane virgines papillas solvit umenti peplo.
    Ipsa jussit muae ut udae virgines nubant rosae
    Fusae prius de cruore deque amoris osculis,
    Deque gemmis, deque flammis, deque Solis purpuris,
    [Page 52]
    Cras ruborem qui latebat veste tectus ignea,
    Unica marito nodo non pudebit solvere.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Ipsa Nimfas Diva luco jussit ire myrteo
    Et Puer comes puellis. Nec tamen credi potest
    Esse Amorem feriatum, si sagittas vexerit.
    Ite Nimfae: posuit arma, feriatus est Amor.
    [Page 54]
    Jussus est inermis ire, nudus ire jussus est:
    Neu quid arcu, neu sagitta, neu quid igne laederet.
    Sed tamen cavete Nimfae, quod Cupido pulcer est:
    Torus est inermis idem, quando nudus est Amor.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Compari Venus pudore mittit ad te virgines.
    Una res est quam rogamus, cede virgo Delia,
    Ut nemus sit incruentum de ferinis stragibus.
    Ipsa vellet ut venires, si deceret virginem:
    Jam tribus choros videres feriatos noctibus:
    Congreges inter catervas ire per saltus tuos,
    [Page 56]
    Floreas inter coronas, myrteas inter casas.
    Nec Ceres, nec Bacchus absunt, nec Poetarum Deus;
    Detinent & tota nox est pervigila cantibus.
    Regnet in silvis Dione: tu recede Delia.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Jussit Hiblaeis tribunal stare Diva floribus.
    Praesens ipsa jura dicit, adsederunt Gratiae.
    [Page 58]
    Hibla totos funde flores quidquid annus adtulit.
    Hibla florum rumpe vestem, quantus Aennae campus est.
    Ruris hic crunt puellae, vel puellae montium,
    Quaeque silvas, quaeque lucos, quaeque montes incolunt.
    Jussit omnis adsidere pueri Mater alitas,
    Jussit & nudo puellas nil Amori credere.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 60]
    Et recentibus virentes ducat umbras floribus.
    Cras erit qui primus aether copulavit nuptias,
    Ut pater roris crearet vernis annum nubibus
    In sinum maritus imber fluxit almae conjugis,
    Ut foetus immixtus omnis alcret magno corpore.
    Ipsa venas atque mentem permeante spiritu
    Intus occultis gubernat procreatrix viribus,
    Perque coelum, perque terras, perque pontum subditum,
    Pervium sui tenorem seminali tramite
    Imbuit, jussitque mundum nosse nascendi vias.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 62]
    Ipsa Trojanos nepotes in Latino transtulit;
    Ipsa Laurentem puellam conjugem nato dedit;
    Moxque Marti de sacello dat pudicam virginem.
    Romuleas ipsa fecit cum Sabinis nuptias,
    Unde Rames & Quirites, proque prole posterûm
    Romoli matrem crearet & nepotem Caesarem.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Rura foecundat voluptas: rura Venerem sentiunt
    Ipse Amor puer Dionae rure natus dicitur.
    [Page 64]
    Hunc ager cum parturiret, ipsa suscepit sinu,
    Ipsa florum delicatis educavit osculis.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Ecce, jam super genestas explicat aonii latus.
    Quisque tuus quo tenetur conjugali foedere.
    Subter umbras cum maritis ecce balantum gregem.
    Et canoras non tacere Diva jussit alites.
    Jam loquaces ore rauco stagna cygni perstrepunt,
    Adsonant Terei puellae subter umbram populi,
    Ut putas motus Amoris ore dici musico,
    Et neges queri sororem de marito barbaro.
    [Page 66]
    Illa cantat: nos tacemus: quando ver venit meum?
    Quando faciam ut celidon, ut tacere desinam?
    Perdidi Musam tacendo, nec me Phoebus respicit.
    Sic Amyclas, cum tacerent, perdidit silentium.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 47][Page][Page 105][Page 112]

    Part of the first Canto of the Rape of the Lock.

    AND now unveil'd, the Toilet stands display'd,
    Each Silver Vase in mystick order laid.
    First, rob'd in white, the Nymph intent adores
    With Head uncover'd, the Cosmetic Pow'rs.
    A heav'nly Image in the Glass appears,
    To that she bends, to that her Eyes she rears;
    Th' inferior Priestess, at her Altar's side,
    Trembling, begins the sacred Rites of Pride.
    Unnumber'd Treasures ope at once, and here
    The various Off'rings of the World appear;
    [Page 114]
    From each she nicely culls with curious Toil,
    And decks the Goddess with the glitt'ring Spoil,
    This Casket India's glowing Gems unlocks,
    And all Arabia breathes from yonder Box.
    The Tortoise here and Elephant unite,
    Transform'd to Combs, the speckled, and the white.
    Here files of Pins extend their shining rows,
    Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bibles, Billet-doux.
    Now awful Beauty puts on all its Arms,
    The Fair each Moment rises in her Charms,
    Repairs her Smiles, awakens ev'ry Grace,
    And calls forth all the Wonders of her Face;
    Sees by degrees a purer Blush arise,
    And keener Lightnings quicken in her Eyes.
    The busy Sylphs surround their darling Care;
    These set the Head, and those divide the Hair,
    Some fold the Sleeve, while others plait the Gown,
    And Betty's prais'd for Labours not her own.
    [Page 113]

    A TRANSLATION of part of the first Canto of the Rape of the Lock, into Leonine Verse, after the manner of the ancient Monks.

    ET nunc dilectum speculum, pro more retectum,
    Emicat in mensâ, quae splendet pyxide densâ:
    Tum primum lymphâ, se purgat candida Nympha;
    Jamque sine mendâ, coelestis imago videnda,
    Nuda caput, bellos retinet, regit, implet, ocellos.
    Hâc stupet explorans, seu cultus numen adorans.
    Inferior claram Pythonissa apparet ad aram,
    Fertque tibi cautè, dicatque Superbia! lautè,
    Dona venusta; oris, quae cunctis, plena laboris,
    Excerpta explorat, dominamque deamque decorat.
    Pyxide devotâ, se pandit hic India tota,
    Et tota existâ transpirat Arabia cistâ;
    [Page 115]
    Testudo hic flectit, dum se mea Lesbia pectit;
    Atque elephas lentè, te pectit Lesbia dente;
    Hunc maculis nôris, nivei jacet ille coloris.
    Hic jacet & mundè, mundus muliebris abundè;
    Spinula resplendens aeris longo ordine pendens,
    Pulvis suavis odore, & epistola suavis amore.
    Induit arma ergo, Veneris pulcherrima virgo;
    Pulchrior in praesens tempus de tempore crescens;
    Jam reparat risus, jam surgit gratia visûs,
    Jam promit cultu, mirac'la latentia vultu.
    Pigmina jam miscet, quo plus sua Purpura gliscet,
    Et geminans bellis splendet magè fulgor ocellis.
    Stant Lemures muti, Nymphae intentique saluti,
    Hic figit Zonam, capiti locat ille Coronam,
    Haec manicis formam, plicis dat & altera normam;
    Et tibi vel Betty, tibi vel nitidissima Letty!
    Gloria factorum temerè conceditur horum,
    [Page 116][Page 122][Page 128][Page 134][Page 141][Page 148][Page 152][Page 158][Page 164]
    FINIS.
  • HESIOD: OR, THE Rise of WOMAN.
  • SONG.
  • A SONG.
  • SONG.
  • ANACREONTICK.
  • ANACREONTICK.
  • FAIRY TALE IN THE Ancient ENGLISH Style.
  • PERVIGILIUM VENERIS.

    CRAS amet, qui numquam amavit; Quique amavit, cras amet.
    Ver novum, ver jam canorum: vere natus orbis est,
    Vere concordant amores, vere nubent alites,
    Et nemus comam resolvit de maritis imbribus.
    Cras amorem copulatrix inter umbras arborum
    Implicat gazas virentes de flagello myrteo.
    Cras Dione jura dicit, fulta sublimi throno.
    [Page 48]
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Tune liquore de superno, spameo ponti e globo,
    Caerulas inter catervas, inter & bipedes equos,
    Fecit undantem Dionen de maritis imbribus.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 50]
    Ipsa gemmas purpurantem pingit annum floribus,
    Ipsa surgentis papillas de Favonî spiritu,
    Urguet in toros tepentes; ipsa roris lucidi,
    Noctis aura quem relinquit, spargit umentis aquas,
    Et micant lacrymae trementes decidivo pondere.
    Gutta praeceps orbe parvo sustinet casus suos.
    In pudorem florulentae prodiderunt purpurae.
    Umor ille, quem serenis astra rorant noctibus.
    Mane virgines papillas solvit umenti peplo.
    Ipsa jussit muae ut udae virgines nubant rosae
    Fusae prius de cruore deque amoris osculis,
    Deque gemmis, deque flammis, deque Solis purpuris,
    [Page 52]
    Cras ruborem qui latebat veste tectus ignea,
    Unica marito nodo non pudebit solvere.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Ipsa Nimfas Diva luco jussit ire myrteo
    Et Puer comes puellis. Nec tamen credi potest
    Esse Amorem feriatum, si sagittas vexerit.
    Ite Nimfae: posuit arma, feriatus est Amor.
    [Page 54]
    Jussus est inermis ire, nudus ire jussus est:
    Neu quid arcu, neu sagitta, neu quid igne laederet.
    Sed tamen cavete Nimfae, quod Cupido pulcer est:
    Torus est inermis idem, quando nudus est Amor.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Compari Venus pudore mittit ad te virgines.
    Una res est quam rogamus, cede virgo Delia,
    Ut nemus sit incruentum de ferinis stragibus.
    Ipsa vellet ut venires, si deceret virginem:
    Jam tribus choros videres feriatos noctibus:
    Congreges inter catervas ire per saltus tuos,
    [Page 56]
    Floreas inter coronas, myrteas inter casas.
    Nec Ceres, nec Bacchus absunt, nec Poetarum Deus;
    Detinent & tota nox est pervigila cantibus.
    Regnet in silvis Dione: tu recede Delia.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Jussit Hiblaeis tribunal stare Diva floribus.
    Praesens ipsa jura dicit, adsederunt Gratiae.
    [Page 58]
    Hibla totos funde flores quidquid annus adtulit.
    Hibla florum rumpe vestem, quantus Aennae campus est.
    Ruris hic crunt puellae, vel puellae montium,
    Quaeque silvas, quaeque lucos, quaeque montes incolunt.
    Jussit omnis adsidere pueri Mater alitas,
    Jussit & nudo puellas nil Amori credere.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 60]
    Et recentibus virentes ducat umbras floribus.
    Cras erit qui primus aether copulavit nuptias,
    Ut pater roris crearet vernis annum nubibus
    In sinum maritus imber fluxit almae conjugis,
    Ut foetus immixtus omnis alcret magno corpore.
    Ipsa venas atque mentem permeante spiritu
    Intus occultis gubernat procreatrix viribus,
    Perque coelum, perque terras, perque pontum subditum,
    Pervium sui tenorem seminali tramite
    Imbuit, jussitque mundum nosse nascendi vias.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    [Page 62]
    Ipsa Trojanos nepotes in Latino transtulit;
    Ipsa Laurentem puellam conjugem nato dedit;
    Moxque Marti de sacello dat pudicam virginem.
    Romuleas ipsa fecit cum Sabinis nuptias,
    Unde Rames & Quirites, proque prole posterûm
    Romoli matrem crearet & nepotem Caesarem.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Rura foecundat voluptas: rura Venerem sentiunt
    Ipse Amor puer Dionae rure natus dicitur.
    [Page 64]
    Hunc ager cum parturiret, ipsa suscepit sinu,
    Ipsa florum delicatis educavit osculis.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
    Ecce, jam super genestas explicat aonii latus.
    Quisque tuus quo tenetur conjugali foedere.
    Subter umbras cum maritis ecce balantum gregem.
    Et canoras non tacere Diva jussit alites.
    Jam loquaces ore rauco stagna cygni perstrepunt,
    Adsonant Terei puellae subter umbram populi,
    Ut putas motus Amoris ore dici musico,
    Et neges queri sororem de marito barbaro.
    [Page 66]
    Illa cantat: nos tacemus: quando ver venit meum?
    Quando faciam ut celidon, ut tacere desinam?
    Perdidi Musam tacendo, nec me Phoebus respicit.
    Sic Amyclas, cum tacerent, perdidit silentium.
    Cras amet, qui numquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet.
  • THE VIGIL of VENUS. Written in the Time of JULIUS CAESAR, and by some ascrib'd to CATULLUS.
  • HOMER's BATRACHOMUOMACHIA: OR, THE BATTEL OF THE FROGS and MICE.
  • To Mr. POPE.
  • Part of the first Canto of the Rape of the Lock.

    AND now unveil'd, the Toilet stands display'd,
    Each Silver Vase in mystick order laid.
    First, rob'd in white, the Nymph intent adores
    With Head uncover'd, the Cosmetic Pow'rs.
    A heav'nly Image in the Glass appears,
    To that she bends, to that her Eyes she rears;
    Th' inferior Priestess, at her Altar's side,
    Trembling, begins the sacred Rites of Pride.
    Unnumber'd Treasures ope at once, and here
    The various Off'rings of the World appear;
    [Page 114]
    From each she nicely culls with curious Toil,
    And decks the Goddess with the glitt'ring Spoil,
    This Casket India's glowing Gems unlocks,
    And all Arabia breathes from yonder Box.
    The Tortoise here and Elephant unite,
    Transform'd to Combs, the speckled, and the white.
    Here files of Pins extend their shining rows,
    Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bibles, Billet-doux.
    Now awful Beauty puts on all its Arms,
    The Fair each Moment rises in her Charms,
    Repairs her Smiles, awakens ev'ry Grace,
    And calls forth all the Wonders of her Face;
    Sees by degrees a purer Blush arise,
    And keener Lightnings quicken in her Eyes.
    The busy Sylphs surround their darling Care;
    These set the Head, and those divide the Hair,
    Some fold the Sleeve, while others plait the Gown,
    And Betty's prais'd for Labours not her own.
  • A TRANSLATION of part of the first Canto of the Rape of the Lock, into Leonine Verse, after the manner of the ancient Monks.

    ET nunc dilectum speculum, pro more retectum,
    Emicat in mensâ, quae splendet pyxide densâ:
    Tum primum lymphâ, se purgat candida Nympha;
    Jamque sine mendâ, coelestis imago videnda,
    Nuda caput, bellos retinet, regit, implet, ocellos.
    Hâc stupet explorans, seu cultus numen adorans.
    Inferior claram Pythonissa apparet ad aram,
    Fertque tibi cautè, dicatque Superbia! lautè,
    Dona venusta; oris, quae cunctis, plena laboris,
    Excerpta explorat, dominamque deamque decorat.
    Pyxide devotâ, se pandit hic India tota,
    Et tota existâ transpirat Arabia cistâ;
    [Page 115]
    Testudo hic flectit, dum se mea Lesbia pectit;
    Atque elephas lentè, te pectit Lesbia dente;
    Hunc maculis nôris, nivei jacet ille coloris.
    Hic jacet & mundè, mundus muliebris abundè;
    Spinula resplendens aeris longo ordine pendens,
    Pulvis suavis odore, & epistola suavis amore.
    Induit arma ergo, Veneris pulcherrima virgo;
    Pulchrior in praesens tempus de tempore crescens;
    Jam reparat risus, jam surgit gratia visûs,
    Jam promit cultu, mirac'la latentia vultu.
    Pigmina jam miscet, quo plus sua Purpura gliscet,
    Et geminans bellis splendet magè fulgor ocellis.
    Stant Lemures muti, Nymphae intentique saluti,
    Hic figit Zonam, capiti locat ille Coronam,
    Haec manicis formam, plicis dat & altera normam;
    Et tibi vel Betty, tibi vel nitidissima Letty!
    Gloria factorum temerè conceditur horum,
  • HEALTH, an ECLOGUE.
  • The FLIES. An ECLOGUE.
  • AN ELEGY, To an Old BEAUTY.
  • The BOOK-WORM.
  • An ALLEGORY on MAN.
  • An Imitation of some FRENCH Verses.
  • A NIGHT-PIECE on DEATH.
  • A HYMN TO CONTENTMENT.
  • The HERMIT.
  • FINIS.
  • VISIONS, Publish'd in the SPECTATORS, &c.

    [Page 183]

    VISION I.SPECTATOR. No. 460.

    Decipimur Specie Recti —Hor.

    OUR Defects and Follies are too often unknown to us; nay, they are so far from being known to us, that they pass for Demonstrations of our Worth. This makes us easie in the midst of them, fond to shew them, fond to improve in them, and to be esteemed for them. Then it is that a thousand unaccountable Conceits, gay Inventions, and extravagant Actions must afford us Pleasures, and display us to others in the Colours which we our selves take a Fancy to glory in: And indeed there is something so amusing for the Time in this State of Vanity and ill-grounded[Page 184] Satisfaction, that even the wiser World has chosen an exalted Word to describe its Enchantments, and called it the Paradise of Fools.

    Perhaps the latter Part of this Reflection may seem a false Thought to some, and bear another Turn than what I have given; but it is at present none of my Business to look after it, who am going to confess that I have been lately amongst them in a Vision.

    Methought I was transported to a Hill, green, flowery, and of an easy Ascent. Upon the broad Top of it resided squint-eyed Errour, and popular Opinion with many Heads; two that dealt in Sorcery, and were famous for bewitching People with the Love of themselves. To these repaired a Multitude from every Side, by two different Paths which lead towards each of them. Some who had the most assuming Air went directly of themselves to Errour, without expecting a Conductor; others of a softer Nature went first to popular Opinion, from whence as she influenced and engaged them with their own Praises, she delivered them over to his Government.

    When we had ascended to an open Part of the Summit where Opinion abode, we found her entertaining several who had arrived before us. Her Voice was pleasing; she breathed Odours as she spoke: She seemed to have a Tongue for every one;[Page 185] every one thought he heard of something that was valuable in himself, and expected a Paradise which she promised as the Reward of his Merit. Thus were we drawn to follow her, till she should bring us where it was to be bestowed: And it was observable, that all the Way we went, the Company was either praising themselves in their Qualifications, or one another for those Qualifications which they took to be conspicuous in their own Characters, or dispraising others for wanting theirs, or vying in the Degrees of them.

    At last we approached a Bower, at the Entrance of which Errour was seated. The Trees were thick-woven, and the Place where he sat artfully contrived to darken him a little. He was disguised in a whitish Robe, which he had put on, that he might appear to us with a nearer Resemblance to Truth: And as she has a Light whereby she manifests the Beauties of Nature to the Eyes of her Adorers, so he had provided himself with a magical Wand, that he might do something in Imitation of it, and please with Delusions. This he lifted solemnly, and muttering to himself, bid the Glories which he kept under Enchantment to appear before us. Immediately we cast our Eyes on that part of the Sky to which he pointed, and observed a thin blue Prospect, which cleared as Mountains in a Summer Morning when the Mists go off, and the Palace of Vanity appeared to Sight.

    [Page 186]

    The Foundation hardly seemed a Foundation, but a Set of curling Clouds, which it stood upon by magical Contrivance. The Way by which we ascended was painted like a Rainbow; and as we went the Breeze that played about us bewitched the Senses. The Walls were gilded all for Show; the lowest Set of Pillars were of the slight Fine Corinthian Order, and the Top of the Building being rounded, bore so far the Resemblance of a Bubble.

    At the Gate the Travellers neither met with a Porter, nor waited till one should appear; every one thought his Merits a sufficient Passport, and pressed forward. In the Hall we met with several Phantoms, that rov'd amongst us, and rang'd the Company according to their Sentiments. There was decreasing Honour, that had nothing to shew in but an old Coat of his Ancestors Atchievements: There was Ostentation, that made himself his own constant Subject, and Gallantry strutting upon his Tip-toes. At the upper end of the Hall stood a Throne, whose Canopy glitter'd with all the Riches that Gayety could contrive to lavish on it; and between the gilded Arms sat Vanity deck'd in the Peacock's Feathers, and acknowledged for another Venus by her Votaries. The Boy who stood beside her for a Cupid, and who made the World to bow before her, was called Self-Conceit. His Eyes had every now and then a Cast in wards,[Page 187] to the Neglect of all Objects about him; and the Arms which he made use of for Conquest, were borrowed from those against whom he had a Design. The Arrow which he shot at the Soldier, was fledg'd from his own Plume of Feathers; the Dart he directed against the Man of Wit, was winged from the Quills he writ with; and that which he sent against those who presumed upon their Riches, was headed with Gold out of their Treasuries: He made Nets for Statesmen from their own Contrivances; he took Fire from the Eyes of Ladies, with which he melted their Hearts; and Lightning from the Tongues of the Eloquent, to enflame them with their own Glories. At the Foot of the Throne sat three false Graces. Flattery with a Shell of Paint, Affectation with a Mirrour to practise at, and Fashion ever changing the Posture of her Cloaths. These applied themselves to secure the Conquests which Self-Conceit had gotten, and had each of them their particular Polities. Flattery gave new Colours and Complexions to all Things, Affectation new Airs and Appearances, which, as she said, were not vulgar, and Fashion both concealed some home Defects, and added some foreign external Beauties.

    As I was reflecting upon what I saw, I heard a Voice in the Crowd, bemoaning the Condition of Mankind, which is thus managed by the Breath of Opinion, deluded by Errour, fir'd by Self-Conceit,[Page 188] and given up to be trained in all the Courses of Vanity, till Scorn or Poverty come upon us. These Expressions were no sooner handed about, but I immediately saw a general Disorder, till at last there was a Parting in one Place, and a grave old Man decent and resolute, was led forward to be punished for the Words he had uttered. He appeared inclined to have spoken in his own Defence, but I could not observe that any one was willing to hear him. Vanity cast a scornful Smile at him; Self Conceit was angry; Flattery, who knew him for Plain-dealing, put on a Vizard, and turned away; Affectation tossed her Fan, made Mouths, and called him Envy or Slander; and Fashion would have it, that at least he must be Ill-Manners. Thus slighted and despised by all, he was driven out for abusing People of Merit and Figure; and I heard it firmly resolved, that he should be used no better where-ever they met with him hereafter.

    I had already seen the meaning of most part of that Warning which he had given, and was considering how the latter Words should be fulfilled, when a mighty Noise was heard without, and the Door was blackned by a numerous Train of Harpies crowding in upon us. Folly and Broken Credit were seen in the House before they entered. Trouble, Shame, Infamy, Scorn and Poverty brought up the Rear. Vanity, with her Cupid and Graces, disappeared; her Subjects ran into[Page 189] Holes and Corners; but many of them were found and carried off (as I was told by one who stood near me) either to Prisons or Cellars, Solitude, or little Company, the mean Arts or the viler Crafts, of Life. But these, added he with a disdainful Air, are such who would fondly live here, when their Merits neither matched the Lustre of the Place, nor their Riches its Expences. We have seen such Scenes as these before now; the Glory you saw will all return when the Hurry is over. I thank'd him for his Information, and believing him so incorrigible as that he would stay till it was his Turn to be taken, I made off to the Door, and overtook some few, who, though they would not hearken to Plain-dealing, were now terrified to good purpose by the Example of others: But when they had touched the Threshold, it was a strange shock to them to find that the Delusion of Errour was gone, and they plainly discerned the Building to hang a little up in the Air without any real Foundation. At first we saw nothing but a desperate Leap remained for us, and I a thousand times blamed my unmeaning Curiosity that had brought me into so much Danger. But as they began to sink lower in their own Minds, methought the Palace sunk along with us, till they were arrived at the due Point of Esteem which they ought to have for themselves; then the Part of the Building in which they stood touched the Earth, and we departing[Page 190] out, it retired from our Eyes. Now, whether they who stayed in the Palace were sensible of this Descent, I cannot tell; it was then my Opinion that they were not. However it be, my Dream broke up at it, and has given me Occasion all my Life to reflect upon the fatal Consequences of following the Suggestions of Vanity.

    [Page 191]

    VISION II.SPECTATOR. No. 501.

    HOW are we tortured with the Absence of what we covet to possess, when it appears to be lost to us! What Excursions does the Soul make in Imagination after it! and how does it turn into it self again, more foolishly fond and dejected, at the Disappointment! Our Grief, instead of having Recourse to Reason, which might restrain it, searches to find a further Nourishment. It calls upon Memory to relate the several Passages and Circumstances of Satisfactions which we formerly enjoyed; the Pleasures we[Page 192] purchased by those Riches that are taken from us; or the Power and Splendour of our departed Honours; or the Voice, the Words, the Looks, the Temper, and Affections of our Friends that are deceased. It needs must happen from hence, that the Passion should often swell to such a Size as to burst the Heart which contains it, if Time did not make these Circumstances less strong and lively, so that Reason should become a more equal Match for the Passion, or if another Desire which becomes more present did not overpower them with a livelier Representation. These are Thoughts which I had, when I fell into a kind of Vision upon this Subject, and may therefore stand for a proper Introduction to a Relation of it.

    I found my self upon a naked Shore, with Company whose afflicted Countenances witnessed their Conditions. Before us flowed a Water deep, silent, and called the River of Tears, which issuing from two Fountains on an upper Ground, encompassed an Island that lay before us. The Boat which plied in it was old and shattered, having been sometimes overset by the Impatience and Haste of single Passengers to arrive at the other side. This immediately was brought to us by Misfortune who steers it, and we were all preparing to take our Places, when there appeared a Woman of a mild and composed Behaviour, who began to deter us from it, by representing the Dangers which would attend our[Page 193] Voyage. Hereupon some who knew her for Patience, and some of those too who till then cry'd the loudest, were persuaded by her, and return'd back. The rest of us went in, and she (whose Good-nature would not suffer her to forsake Persons in Trouble) desired Leave to accompany us, that she might at least administer some small Comfort or Advice while we sailed. We were no sooner embarked but the Boat, was pushed off, the Sheet was spread; and being filled with Sighs, which are the Winds of that Country, we made a Passage to the farther Bank thro' several Difficulties of which the most of us seem'd utterly regardless.

    When we landed, we perceived the Island to be strangely over-cast with Fogs, which no Brightness could pierce, so that a kind of gloomy Horror sat always brooding over it. This had something in it very shocking to easy Tempers, insomuch that some others, whom Patience had by this time gain'd over, left us here, and privily convey'd themselves round the Verge of the Island to find a Ford by which she told them they might escape.

    For my part, I still went along with those who were for piercing into the Centre of the Place; and joining our selves to others whom we found upon the same Journey, we marched solemnly as at a Funeral, thro' bordering Hedges[Page 194] of Rosemary, and thro' a Grove of Yew-Trees, which love to over-shadow Tombs and flourish in Church-Yards. Here we heard on every side the Wailings and Complaints of several of the Inhabitants, who had cast themselves disconsolately at the Feet of Trees; and as we chanc'd to approach any of these, we might perceive them wringing their Hands, beating their Breasts, tearing their Hair, or after some other manner visibly agitated with Vexation. Our Sorrows were heightned by the Influence of what we heard and saw, and one of our Number was wrought up to such a Pitch of Wildness, as to talk of hanging himself upon a Bough which shot temptingly across the Path we travelled in; but he was restrain'd from it by the kind Endeavours of our abovementioned Companion.

    We had now gotten into the most dusky silent Part of the Island, and by the redoubled Sounds of Sighs, which made a doleful whistling in the Branches, the Thickness of Air which occasioned faintish Respiration, and the violent Throbbings of Heart which more and more affected us, we found that we approach'd the Grotto of Grief. It was a wide, hollow, and melancholy Cave, sunk deep in a Dale, and watered by Rivulets that had a Colour between Red and Black. These crept slow, and half congealed amongst its Windings, and mixed their heavy Murmur with the Echo of Groans that rolled thro' all the Passages. [Page 195]In the most retired part of it sat the doleful Being her self; the Path to her was strewed with Goads, Stings, and Thorns; and the Throne on which she sat was broken into a Rock with ragged Pieces pointing upwards for her to lean upon. A heavy Mist hung above her, her Head oppressed with it reclined upon her Arm: Thus did she reign over her disconsolate Subjects, full of her self to Stupidity, in eternal Pensiveness, and the profoundest Silence. On one side of her stood Dejection just dropping into a Swoon, and Paleness wasting to a Skeleton; on the other side were Care inwardly tormented with Imaginations, and Anguish suffering outward Troubles to suck the Blood from her Heart in the Shape of Vultures. The whole Vault had a genuine Dismalness in it, which a few scattered Lamps, whose blueish Flames arose and sunk in their Urns, discovered to our Eyes with Encrease. Some of us fell down, overcome and spent with what they suffered in the way, and were given over to those Tormentors that stood on either Hand of the Presence; others, galled and mortified with Pain, recover'd the Entrance, where Patience, whom we had left behind, was still waiting to receive us.

    With her (whose Company was now become more grateful to us by the want we had found of her) we winded round the Grotto, and ascended at the Back of it, out of the mournful Dale in[Page 196] whose Bottom it lay. On this Eminence we halted, by her Advice, to pant for Breath; and lifting our Eyes, which till then were fixed downwards, felt a sullen sort of Satisfaction, in observing thro' the Shades what Numbers had entred the Island. This Satisfaction, which appears to have Ill-nature in it, was excusable, because it happened at a time when we were too much taken up with our own Concern, to have Respect to that of others; and therefore we did not consider them as suffering, but our selves as not suffering in the most forlorn Estate. It had also the Groundwork of Humanity and Compassion in it, though the Mind was then too deeply engaged to perceive it; but as we proceeded onwards it began to discover it self, and from observing that others were unhappy, we came to question one another, when it was that we met, and what were the sad Occasions that brought us together. Then we heard our Stories, we compared them, we mutually gave and received Pity, and so by degrees became tolerable Company.

    A considerable Part of the troublesome Road was thus deceived; at length the Openings among the Trees grew larger, the Air seemed thinner, it lay with less Oppression upon us, and we could now and then discern Tracts in it of a lighter Greyness, like the Breakings of Day, short in Duration, much enlivening, and called in that Country Gleams of Amusement. Within a[Page 197] short while these Gleams began to appear more frequent, and then brighter and of a longer Continuance; the Sighs that hitherto filled the Air with so much Dolefulness, altered to the Sound of common Breezes, and in general the Horrors of the Island were abated.

    When we had arrived at last at the Ford by which we were to pass out, we met with those fashionable Mourners who had been ferried over along with us, and who being unwilling to go as far as we, had coasted by the Shore to find the Place, where they waited our coming; that by shewing themselves to the World only at that time when we did, they might seem also to have been among the troubles of the Grotto. Here the Waters, that rolled on the other side so deep and silent, were much dried up, and it was an easier Matter for us to wade over.

    The River being crossed, we were received upon the further Bank by our Friends and Acquaintance, whom Comfort had brought out to congratulate our Appearance in the World again. Some of these blamed us for staying so long away from them, others advised us against all Temptations of going back again; every one was cautious not to renew our Trouble, by asking any Particulars of the Journey; and all concluded, that in a Case[Page 198] of so much Affliction, we could not have made choice of a fitter Companion than Patience. Here Patience, appearing serene at her Praises, delivered us over to Comfort. Comfort smiled at his receiving the Charge; immediately the Sky purpled on that side to which he turned, and double Day at once broke in upon me.

    [Page 199]

    VISION III.GUARDIAN. No. 56.

    Quid mentem traxisse polo, quid profuit altum
    Erexisse caput? pecudum simore pererrant.
    Claud.

    I Was considering last Night, when I could not sleep, how noble a Part of the Creation Man was design'd to be, and how distinguished in all his Actions above other Earthly Creatures. From whence I fell to take a view of the Change and Corruption which he has introduced into his own Condition, the groveling Appetites, the mean Characters of Sense, and wild Courses of Passions, that cast him from the Degree in which Providence had placed him, the debasing himself with Qualifications not his own, and his degenerating[Page 200] into a lower Sphere of Action. This inspired me with a mixture of Contempt and Anger; which however, was not so violent as to hinder the Return of Sleep, but grew confused as that came upon me, and made me end my Reflections with giving Mankind the opprobrious Names of Inconsiderate, Mad and Foolish.

    Here methought, where my waking Reason left the Subject, my Fancy pursued it in a Dream; and I imagined my self in a loud Soliloquy of Passion, railing at my Species, and walking hard to get rid of the Company I despised; when two Men who had over-heard me made up on either hand. These I observed had many Features in common, which might occasion the Mistake of the one for the other in those to whom they appear single, but I, who saw them together, could easily perceive, that tho' there was an Air of Severity in each, it was tempered with a natural Sweetness in the one, and by turns constrained or ruffled by the Designs of Malice in the other.

    I was at a loss to know the Reason of their joining me so briskly, when he whose Appearance displeased me most, thus addressed his Companion. Pray, Brother, let him alone, and we shall immediately see him transformed into a Tyger. This struck me with Horror, which the other perceived, and pitying my Disorder, bid me be of good Courage, for tho' I had been Savage in my Treatment of Mankind, (whom I should rather[Page 201] reform than rail against) he would, however, endeavour to rescue me from my Danger. At this I looked a little more chearful, and while I testified my Resignation to him, we saw the angry Brother fling away from us in a Passion for his Disappointment. Being now left to my Friend, I went back with him at his Desire, that I might know the Meaning of those Words which so affrighted me.

    As we went along, To inform you, says he, with whom you have this Adventure, my Name is Reproof and his Reproach, both born of the same Mother, but of different Fathers. Truth is our common Parent. Friendship, who saw her, fell in Love with her, and she being pleased with him, he begat me upon her; but a while after Enmity lying in Ambush for her, became the Father of him whom you saw along with me. The Temper of our Mother enclines us to the same sort of Business, the informing Mankind of their Faults; but the differing Complexions of our Fathers make us differ in our Designs and Company. I have a natural Benevolence in my Mind which engages me with Friends, and he a natural Impetuosity in his, which casts him among Enemies.

    As he thus discoursed we came to a Place where there were three Entrances into as many several Walks, which lay beside one another. We[Page 202] passed into the middlemost, a plain, strait, regular Walk, set with Trees, which added to the Beauty of the Place, but did not so close their Boughs over head as to exclude the Light from it. Here as we walked I was made to observe, how the Road on one hand was full of Rocks and Precipices, over which Reproach (who had already gotten thither) was furiously driving unhappy Wretches; the other side was all laid out in Gardens of gaudy Tulips, amongst whose Leaves the Serpents wreath'd, and at the end of every grassy Walk the Enchantress Flattery was weaving Bowers to lull Souls asleep in. We continued still walking on the middle way, 'till we arrived in a Building in which it terminated. This was formerly erected by Truth for a Watch Tower, from whence she took a View of the Earth, and, as she saw occasion, sent out Reproof, or even Reproach, for our Reformation. Over the Door I took notice that a Face was carved with a Heart upon the Lips of it, and presently call'd to Mind that this was the Antients Emblem of Sincerity. In the Entrance I met with Freedom of Speech and Complaisance, who had for a long time looked upon one another as Enemies; but Reproof has so happily brought them together, that they now act as Friends and Fellow-Agents in the same Family. Before I ascended up the Stairs, I had my Eyes purified by a Water which made me see extremely clear, and I think they said it sprung in a Pit, from whence (as Democritus had reported)[Page 203] they formerly brought up Truth, who had hid her self in it. I was then admitted to the upper Chamber of Prospect, which was called the Knowledge of Mankind; here the Window was no sooner opened but I perceived the Clouds to roll off and part before me, and a Scene of all the Variety of the World presented it self.

    But how different was Mankind in this View, from what it used to appear! Methought the very Shape of most of them was lost; some had the Heads of Dogs, others of Apes or Parrots, and in short, where-ever any one took upon him the inferior and unworthy Qualities of other Creatures, the Change of his Soul became visible in his Countenance. The strutting Pride of him who is endued with Brutality instead of Courage, made his Face shoot out in the Form of a Horse's; his Eyes became prominent, his Nostrils widened, and his Wig untying flowed down on one side of his Neck in a waving Mane. The Talkativeness of those who love the ill Nature of Conversation made them turn into Assemblies of Geese, their Lips hardened into Bills by eternal using, they gabbled for Diversion, they hiss'd in Scandal, and their Ruffles falling back on their Arms, a Succession of little Feathers appeared, which formed Wings for them to flutter with from one Visit to another. The Envious and Malicious lay on the Ground with the Heads of different sorts of Serpents, and not endeavouring to erect themselves,[Page 204] but meditating Mischief to others, they suck'd the Poison of the Earth, sharpened their Tongues to Stings upon the Stones, and rolled their Trains unperceivably beneath their Habits. The Hypocritical Oppressors wore the Faces of Crocodiles, their Mouths were Instruments of Cruelty, their Eyes of Deceit; they committed Wickedness, and bemoaned that there should be so much of it in the World; they devoured the Unwary, and wept over the Remains of them. The Covetous had so hook'd and worn their Fingers by counting Interest upon Interest, that they converted to the Claws of Harpies, and these they still were stretching out for more, yet seem'd unsatisfied with their Acquisitions. The Sharpers had the Looks of Camelions; they every Minute changed their Appearance, and fed on Swarms of Flies which fell as so many Cullies amongst them. The Bully seem'd a Dunghil Cock, he crested well, and bore his Comb aloft; he was beaten by almost every one, yet still sung for Triumph; and only the mean Coward prick'd up the Ears of a Hare to fly before him. Criticks were turned into Cats, whose Pleasure and Grumbling go together. Fops were Apes in embroider'd Jackets. Flatterers were curl'd Spaniels, fawning and crouching. The Crafty had the Face of a Fox, the Slothful of an Ass, the Cruel of a Wolf, the Ill-bred of a Bear, the Leachers were Goats, and the Gluttons Swine. Drunkenness was the only Vice that did not change the[Page 205] Face of its Professors into that of another Creature; but this I took to be far from a Privilege, for these two Reasons; because it sufficiently deforms them of it self, and because none of the lower Ranks of Beings is guilty of so foolish an Intemperance.

    As I was taking a View of these Representations of Things, without any more Order than is usual in a Dream, or in the Confusion of the World it self, I perceived a Concern within me for what I saw; my Eyes began to moisten, and as if the Virtue of that Water with which they were purified was lost for a time, by their being touched with that which arose from a Passion, the Clouds immediately began to gather again, and close from either hand upon the Prospect. I then turned towards my Guide, who addressed himself to me after this manner. You have seen the Condition of Mankind when it descends from its Dignity; now therefore guard your self from that Degeneracy by a modest Greatness of Spirit on one side, and a conscious Shame on the other. Endeavour also with a Generosity of Goodness to make your Friends aware of it; let them know what Defects you perceive are growing upon them; handle the Matter as you see Reason, either with the Airs of severe or humorous Affection; sometimes plainly describing the Degeneracy in its full proper Colours, or at other times letting them know that if they proceed as they have begun,[Page 206] you give them to such a Day or so many Months to turn Bears, Wolves, or Foxes, &c. Neither neglect your more remote Acquaintance, where you see any worthy and susceptible of Admonition; expose the Beasts whose Qualities you see them putting on, where you have no mind to engage with their Persons. The Possibility of their applying this is very obvious: The Egyptians saw it so clearly, that they made the Pictures of Animals explain their Minds to one another instead of Writing; and indeed it is hardly to be missed, since Aesop took them out of their Mute Condition, and taught them to speak for themselves with relation to the Actions of Mankind.

    [Page 207]

    VISION IV.GUARDIAN. No. 66.

    THERE is a Sett of Mankind, who are wholly employed in the Ill-natured Office of gathering up a Collection of Stories that lessen the Reputation of others, and spreading them Abroad with a certain Air of Satisfaction. Perhaps, indeed, an innocent and unmeaning Curiosity, a Desire of being informed concerning those we live with, or a Willingness to profit by Reflection upon the Actions of others, may sometimes afford an Excuse, or sometimes a Defence, for Inquisitiveness; but certainly it is beyond all Excuse,[Page 208] a Transgression against Humanity, to carry the Matter further, to tear off the Dressings, as I may say, from the Wounds of a Friend, and expose them to the Air in cruel Fits of Diversion; and yet we have something more to bemoan, an Outrage of an higher Nature, which mankind is guilty of when they are not content to spread the Stories of Folly, Frailty and Vice, but even enlarge them, or invent new ones, and blacken Characters that we may appear ridiculous or hateful to one another. From such Practices as these it happens, that some feel a Sorrow, and others are agitated with a Spirit of Revenge; that Scandals or Lies are told, because another has told such before; that Resentments and Quarrels arise, and Injuries are given, received, and multiplied, in a Scene of Vengeance.

    All this I have often observed with abundance of Concern; and having a perfect Desire to further the Happiness of Mankind; I lately set my self to consider the Causes from whence such Evils arise, and the Remedies which may be applied. Whereupon I shut my Eyes to prevent Distraction from outward Objects, and a while after shot away, upon an Impulse of Thought, into the World of Ideas, where abstracted Qualities became visible in such Appearances as were agreeable to each of their Natures.

    That part of the Country, where I happened[Page 209] to light, was the most noisy that I had ever known. The Winds whistled, the Leaves rustled, the Brooks rumbled, the Birds chatter'd, the Tongues of Men were heard, and the Echo mingled something of every Sound in its Repetition, so that there was a strange Confusion and Uproar of Sounds about me. At length, as the Noise still encreased, I could discern a Man habited like a Herald (and as I afterwards understood) called Novelty, that came forward proclaiming a Solemn Day to be kept at the House of Common Fame. Immediately behind him advanced three Nymphs, who had monstrous Appearances. The first of these was Curiosity, habited like a Virgin, and having an hundred Ears upon her Head to serve in her Enquiries. The Second of these was Talkativeness, a little better grown, she seemed to be like a young Wife, and had an hundred Tongues to spread her Stories. The Third was Censoriousness, habited like a Widow, and surrounded with an hundred Squinting Eyes of a malignant Influence, which so obliquely darted on all around, that it was impossible to say which of them had brought in the Informations she boasted of. These, as I was informed, had been very instrumental in preserving and rearing Common Fame, when upon her Birth-day she was shuffled into a Crowd, to escape the search which Truth might have made after her and her Parents. Curiosity found her there, Talkativeness convey'd her away, and Censoriousness so nursed her up,[Page 210] that in a short time she grew to a prodigious Size, and obtained an Empire over the Universe; wherefore the Power, in Gratitude for these Services, has since advanced them to her highest Employments. The next who came forward in this Procession was a light Damsel, called Credulity, who carried behind them the Lamp, the Silver Vessel with a Spout, and other Instruments proper for this Solemn Occasion. She had formerly seen these three together, and conjecturing from the number of their Ears, Tongues and Eyes, that they might be the proper Genii of Attention, Familiar Converse, and Ocular Demonstration, she from that time gave her self up to attend them. The last who followed were some who had closely muffled themselves in upper Garments, so that I could not discern who they were; but just as the foremost of them was come up, I am glad, says she, calling me by my Name, to meet you at this time, stay close by me, and take a strict Observation of all that passes. Her Voice was sweet and commanding, I thought I had somewhere heard it; and from her, as I went along, I learned the Meaning of every thing which offered.

    We now marched forward thro' the Rookery of Rumours, which flew thick and with a terrible din all around us. At length we arrived at the House of Common Fame, where a Hecatomb of Reputations was that Day to fall for her Pleasure. The House stood upon an Eminence, having a thousand[Page 211] Passages to it, and a thousand whispering Holes for the Conveyance of Sound. The Hall we entered was formed with the Art of a Musick-Chamber for the Improvement of Noises. Rest and Silence are banished the Place. Stories of different Natures wander in light Flocks all about, sometimes Truths and Lies, or sometimes Lies themselves clashing against one another. In the middle stood a Table painted after the manner of the remotest Asiatick Countries, upon which the Lamp, the Silver Vessel, and Cups of a white Earth, were planted in order. Then dried Herbs were brought, collected for the Solemnity in Moonshine, and Water being put to them, there was a greenish Liquor made, to which they added the Flower of Milk, and an Extraction from the Canes of America, for performing a Libation to the infernal Powers of Mischief. After this, Curiosity, retiring to a withdrawing-Room, brought forth the Victims, being to Appearance a Sett of small waxen Images, which she laid upon the Table one after another. Immediately Talkativeness gave each of them the Name of some one, whom for the Time they were to represent; and Censoriousness stuck them all about with black Pins, still pronouncing at every one she stuck, something to the Prejudice of the Persons represented. No sooner were these Rites performed, and Incantations uttered, but the Sound of a Speaking Trumpet was heard in the Air, by which they knew the Deity of the Place was propitiated and[Page 212] assisting. Upon this the Sky grew darker, a Storm arose, and Murmurs, Sighs, Groans, Cries, and the Words of Grief or Resentment were heard within it. Thus the three Sorceresses discovered, that they, whose Names they had given to the Images, were already affected with what was done to them in Effigie. The Knowledge of this was received with loudest the Laughter, and in many Congratulatory Words they applauded one another's Wit and Power.

    As Matters were at this high Point of Disorder, the muffled Lady, whom I attended on, being no longer able to endure such barbarous Proceedings, threw off her upper Garment of Reserve, and appeared to be Truth. As soon as she had confessed her self present, the Speaking-Trumpet ceas'd to Sound, the Sky cleared up, the Storm abated, the Noises which were heard in it ended, the Laughter of the Company was over, and a serene Light, till then unknown to the Place, was diffused around it. At this the detected Sorceresses endeavoured to escape in a Cloud which I saw began to thicken about them, but it was soon dispersed, their Charms being controled and prevailed over by the superior Divinity. For my Part I was exceedingly glad to see it so, and began to consider what Punishments she would inflict upon them. I fancied it would be proper to cut off Curiosity's Ears, and fix them to the Eaves of Houses, to nail the Tongue of Talkativeness to[Page 213] Indian Tables, and to put out the Eyes of Censoriousness with a Flash of her Light. In respect of Credulity I had indeed some little Pity, and had I been Judge she might, perhaps, have escaped with a hearty Reproof.

    But I soon found that the discerning Judge had other Designs, she knew them for such as will not be destroyed intirely while Mankind is in Being, and yet ought to have a Brand and Punishment affixed to them that they may be avoided. Wherefore she took a Seat for Judgment, and had the Criminals brought forward by Shame ever blushing, and Trouble with a Whip of many Lashes, two Phantoms who had dogged the Procession in Disguise, and waited 'till they had an Authority from Truth to lay Hands upon them. Immediately then she ordered Curiosity and Talkativeness to be fettered together, that the one should never suffer the other to rest, nor the other ever let her remain undiscovered. Light Credulity she linkt to Shame at the Tormenter's own Request, who was pleased to be thus secure that her Prisoner could not escape; and this was done partly for her Punishment, and partly for her Amendment. Censoriousness was also in like manner begged by Trouble, and had her assign'd for an eternal Companion. After they were thus chain'd with one another, by the Judge's Order, she drove them from the Presence to wander for ever thro' the World, with Novelty stalking before them.

    [Page 214]

    The Cause being now over, she retreated from sight within the Splendor of her own Glory, which leaving the House it had brightned, the Sounds that were proper to the Place began to be as loud and confused as when we entered, and there being no longer a clear distinguished Appearance of any Objects represented to me, I returned from the Excursion I had made in Fancy.

    [Page 215]

    VISION V.

    WHatever Industry and Eagerness the modern Discoverers have shewn for the Knowledge of new Countries, there yet remains an ample Field in the Creation to which they are utter Strangers, and which all the Methods of Travelling hitherto invented, will never bring them acquainted with. Of this I can give a very particular Instance in an Accident which lately happened to me.

    As I was on the 6th of this Instant, being Febr. 1715, walking with my Eyes cast upward, I fell into a Reflection on the vast Tracts of Air which appear'd before me as uninhabited. [Page 216]And wherefore, said I to my self, shou'd all this Space be created? Can it only be for an odd Bird to fly through, as now and then a Man may pass a Desart? Or are there also Kingdoms with their particular Polities, and People of a Species which we know nothing of, ordain'd to live in it.

    It was in this Manner I continued my Thought, when my Feet forsook the Level, and I was insensibly mounted in the Air, till I arriv'd at a footing as firm and level as what I had left. But with what Surprise did I find my self among Creatures distinct from us in Shape and Customs?

    The Inhabitants are of a small Stature, below those which History describes for Pigmies. The tallest of them exceed not fourteen or fifteen Inches, and the least are hardly three. This difference proceeds only from their Growth before they are brought to Light; for after we never observe them to grow, unless it please their Parents, who have this uncommon Method of enabling them: They recall them to the Womb, where having been for some Time, they receive an Addition to their Bulk, then go back to their Houses, and continue at a Stand as they did before. The Experiment has been often try'd with Success, but some have suffered extremely by undergoing it.

    [Page 217]

    Their Skins are like the antient Britains, all drawn over with a Variety of Figures. The Colour made use of for this end, is generally Black. I have indeed observ'd in some of the Religious, and Lawyers of the Country, Red here and there intermingl'd, tho' not so commonly of late. They tell me too, they often us'd to paint with all Colours; and I visited two or three of the old Inhabitants, who were adorn'd in that Fashion: But this is now disused, since the new Inventions, by which the use of a black Fountain that belongs to that Country, is render'd more useful and serviceable.

    The Cloaths in which they go clad, are the Skins of Beasts, worn by some Plain, by others with Figures wrought upon them. Gold is also made use of by some, to beautify their Apparel; but very seldom Silver, unless, as Buckles are by us, for fastening the Garment before. I have seen some of them go like Seamen in thin blue Shirts, others like Indians in a party-colour'd loose kind of Apparel, and others who they told me were the Politicians of the Country, go about stark naked.

    The Manner of dressing them is this: At first when they come into the World, they have a Suit given them, which if it do not fit[Page 218] exactly, is not, as with us, fitted up again, but the Children are in a cruel Manner cut and squeez'd to bring them to its Proportion. Yet this they seem not much to regard, provided their principal Parts are not affected. When the Dress is thus settled on them, they are clad for Life, it being seldom their Custom to alter it, or put it off: In short, they live in it Night and Day, and wear it to Rags rather than part with it, being sure of the same Torture, and a greater Danger if they shou'd be dress'd a second Time. I have further taken Notice, that they delight to go open Breasted, most of them shewing their Bosoms speckled. Some Lawyers indeed wear them quite White, perhaps for Distinction sake, or to be known at a Distance. But the finest Shew, is among the Beaux and Ladies, who mightily affect something of Gold, both before and behind them.

    Food I never saw them eat; they being a People, who, as I observed, live in Air: Their Houses are all single and high, having no back Rooms, but frequently seven or eight Stories, which are all separate Houses above one another. They have one Gate to their City, and generally no Doors to their Houses; tho' I have sometimes seen them have particular Doors, and even made of Glass, where the Inhabitants have been observ'd to stand many[Page 219] Days, that their fine Apparel may be seen thro' them. If at any time they lye down, which they do when they come from their Habitations (as if coming Abroad were their greatest Fatigue) they will lie together in Heaps without receiving Hurt: Though the soundest Sleep they get, is when they can have Dust enough to cover them over.

    The Females amongst them are but few, nothing being there produced by a Marriage of Sexes. The Males are of a different Strength or Endowment of Parts, some having Knowledge in an extream Degree, and others none at all; yet at the same Time, they are mighty Pretenders to instruct others. Their Names, (for as many as wou'd discover them to me) I observ'd to be the very same as ours are upon Earth; I met a few who made theirs a Mystery, but why, I am yet to learn. They are so communicative, that they will tell all the Knowledge they boast, if a Stranger apply himself to their Conversation: And this may be worth his while, if he considers that all Languages, Arts, and Sciences, are profest amongst them. I think I may say it without Vanity, that I knew a certain Talisman, with proper Figures and Characters inscrib'd, whereby their greatest People may be charm'd, brought to reside with a Man, and serve him like a Familiar in the Conduct of Life.

    [Page 220]

    There is no such thing as fighting amongst them, but their Controversies are determin'd by Words, wherein they seldom own themselves conquer'd, yet proceed no further than two or three Replies: Perhaps indeed two others take up their Neighbour's Quarrel, but then they desist too after the same Manner; sometimes however, Blows have ensu'd upon their Account, though not amongst them: In such a Case they have descended to inspire Mankind with their Sentiments, and chosen Champions from among us, in order to decide it.

    The Time of their Life is very different, some dye as soon as born, and others in their Youth; some get a new Lease of Life by their entring into the Womb again, and if any weather it out to a hundred Years, they generally live on to an extreme Age. After which it is remarkable, that instead of growing weaker as we do, by Time, they increase in Strength, and become at last so confirm'd in Health, that it is the Opinion of their Country, they never can perish while the World remains.

    The Sicknesses which may take them off, besides what happens from their natural Weakness of Body, are of different Sorts. One is over-moisture, which affecting their Mansions, makes them lose their Complexions, become deform'd, and[Page 221] rot away insensibly: This is often obviated by their not keeping too much within Doors. Another is the Worms, which prey upon their Bowels: If they be maim'd by Accidents, they become, like us, so far useless; and that Maim will some time or other be the Occasion of their Ruin. However, they perish by these Means only in Appearance, and like Spirits, who vanish in one Place, to be seen in another. But as Men dye of Passions, so Disesteem is what the most nearly touches them; then they withdraw into, Holes and Corners, and consume away in Darkness. Or if they are kept alive a few Days by the force of Spices, it is but a short Reprieve from their perishing to Eternity; without any Honour, but that instead of a Burial, a small Pyre of Past shou'd be erected over them, while they, like the antient Romans, are reduc'd to Ashes.

    N. B. This Vision is to be understood of a Library of Books.

    FINIS.
  • VISION I.SPECTATOR. No. 460.

    Decipimur Specie Recti —Hor.

    OUR Defects and Follies are too often unknown to us; nay, they are so far from being known to us, that they pass for Demonstrations of our Worth. This makes us easie in the midst of them, fond to shew them, fond to improve in them, and to be esteemed for them. Then it is that a thousand unaccountable Conceits, gay Inventions, and extravagant Actions must afford us Pleasures, and display us to others in the Colours which we our selves take a Fancy to glory in: And indeed there is something so amusing for the Time in this State of Vanity and ill-grounded[Page 184] Satisfaction, that even the wiser World has chosen an exalted Word to describe its Enchantments, and called it the Paradise of Fools.

    Perhaps the latter Part of this Reflection may seem a false Thought to some, and bear another Turn than what I have given; but it is at present none of my Business to look after it, who am going to confess that I have been lately amongst them in a Vision.

    Methought I was transported to a Hill, green, flowery, and of an easy Ascent. Upon the broad Top of it resided squint-eyed Errour, and popular Opinion with many Heads; two that dealt in Sorcery, and were famous for bewitching People with the Love of themselves. To these repaired a Multitude from every Side, by two different Paths which lead towards each of them. Some who had the most assuming Air went directly of themselves to Errour, without expecting a Conductor; others of a softer Nature went first to popular Opinion, from whence as she influenced and engaged them with their own Praises, she delivered them over to his Government.

    When we had ascended to an open Part of the Summit where Opinion abode, we found her entertaining several who had arrived before us. Her Voice was pleasing; she breathed Odours as she spoke: She seemed to have a Tongue for every one;[Page 185] every one thought he heard of something that was valuable in himself, and expected a Paradise which she promised as the Reward of his Merit. Thus were we drawn to follow her, till she should bring us where it was to be bestowed: And it was observable, that all the Way we went, the Company was either praising themselves in their Qualifications, or one another for those Qualifications which they took to be conspicuous in their own Characters, or dispraising others for wanting theirs, or vying in the Degrees of them.

    At last we approached a Bower, at the Entrance of which Errour was seated. The Trees were thick-woven, and the Place where he sat artfully contrived to darken him a little. He was disguised in a whitish Robe, which he had put on, that he might appear to us with a nearer Resemblance to Truth: And as she has a Light whereby she manifests the Beauties of Nature to the Eyes of her Adorers, so he had provided himself with a magical Wand, that he might do something in Imitation of it, and please with Delusions. This he lifted solemnly, and muttering to himself, bid the Glories which he kept under Enchantment to appear before us. Immediately we cast our Eyes on that part of the Sky to which he pointed, and observed a thin blue Prospect, which cleared as Mountains in a Summer Morning when the Mists go off, and the Palace of Vanity appeared to Sight.

    [Page 186]

    The Foundation hardly seemed a Foundation, but a Set of curling Clouds, which it stood upon by magical Contrivance. The Way by which we ascended was painted like a Rainbow; and as we went the Breeze that played about us bewitched the Senses. The Walls were gilded all for Show; the lowest Set of Pillars were of the slight Fine Corinthian Order, and the Top of the Building being rounded, bore so far the Resemblance of a Bubble.

    At the Gate the Travellers neither met with a Porter, nor waited till one should appear; every one thought his Merits a sufficient Passport, and pressed forward. In the Hall we met with several Phantoms, that rov'd amongst us, and rang'd the Company according to their Sentiments. There was decreasing Honour, that had nothing to shew in but an old Coat of his Ancestors Atchievements: There was Ostentation, that made himself his own constant Subject, and Gallantry strutting upon his Tip-toes. At the upper end of the Hall stood a Throne, whose Canopy glitter'd with all the Riches that Gayety could contrive to lavish on it; and between the gilded Arms sat Vanity deck'd in the Peacock's Feathers, and acknowledged for another Venus by her Votaries. The Boy who stood beside her for a Cupid, and who made the World to bow before her, was called Self-Conceit. His Eyes had every now and then a Cast in wards,[Page 187] to the Neglect of all Objects about him; and the Arms which he made use of for Conquest, were borrowed from those against whom he had a Design. The Arrow which he shot at the Soldier, was fledg'd from his own Plume of Feathers; the Dart he directed against the Man of Wit, was winged from the Quills he writ with; and that which he sent against those who presumed upon their Riches, was headed with Gold out of their Treasuries: He made Nets for Statesmen from their own Contrivances; he took Fire from the Eyes of Ladies, with which he melted their Hearts; and Lightning from the Tongues of the Eloquent, to enflame them with their own Glories. At the Foot of the Throne sat three false Graces. Flattery with a Shell of Paint, Affectation with a Mirrour to practise at, and Fashion ever changing the Posture of her Cloaths. These applied themselves to secure the Conquests which Self-Conceit had gotten, and had each of them their particular Polities. Flattery gave new Colours and Complexions to all Things, Affectation new Airs and Appearances, which, as she said, were not vulgar, and Fashion both concealed some home Defects, and added some foreign external Beauties.

    As I was reflecting upon what I saw, I heard a Voice in the Crowd, bemoaning the Condition of Mankind, which is thus managed by the Breath of Opinion, deluded by Errour, fir'd by Self-Conceit,[Page 188] and given up to be trained in all the Courses of Vanity, till Scorn or Poverty come upon us. These Expressions were no sooner handed about, but I immediately saw a general Disorder, till at last there was a Parting in one Place, and a grave old Man decent and resolute, was led forward to be punished for the Words he had uttered. He appeared inclined to have spoken in his own Defence, but I could not observe that any one was willing to hear him. Vanity cast a scornful Smile at him; Self Conceit was angry; Flattery, who knew him for Plain-dealing, put on a Vizard, and turned away; Affectation tossed her Fan, made Mouths, and called him Envy or Slander; and Fashion would have it, that at least he must be Ill-Manners. Thus slighted and despised by all, he was driven out for abusing People of Merit and Figure; and I heard it firmly resolved, that he should be used no better where-ever they met with him hereafter.

    I had already seen the meaning of most part of that Warning which he had given, and was considering how the latter Words should be fulfilled, when a mighty Noise was heard without, and the Door was blackned by a numerous Train of Harpies crowding in upon us. Folly and Broken Credit were seen in the House before they entered. Trouble, Shame, Infamy, Scorn and Poverty brought up the Rear. Vanity, with her Cupid and Graces, disappeared; her Subjects ran into[Page 189] Holes and Corners; but many of them were found and carried off (as I was told by one who stood near me) either to Prisons or Cellars, Solitude, or little Company, the mean Arts or the viler Crafts, of Life. But these, added he with a disdainful Air, are such who would fondly live here, when their Merits neither matched the Lustre of the Place, nor their Riches its Expences. We have seen such Scenes as these before now; the Glory you saw will all return when the Hurry is over. I thank'd him for his Information, and believing him so incorrigible as that he would stay till it was his Turn to be taken, I made off to the Door, and overtook some few, who, though they would not hearken to Plain-dealing, were now terrified to good purpose by the Example of others: But when they had touched the Threshold, it was a strange shock to them to find that the Delusion of Errour was gone, and they plainly discerned the Building to hang a little up in the Air without any real Foundation. At first we saw nothing but a desperate Leap remained for us, and I a thousand times blamed my unmeaning Curiosity that had brought me into so much Danger. But as they began to sink lower in their own Minds, methought the Palace sunk along with us, till they were arrived at the due Point of Esteem which they ought to have for themselves; then the Part of the Building in which they stood touched the Earth, and we departing[Page 190] out, it retired from our Eyes. Now, whether they who stayed in the Palace were sensible of this Descent, I cannot tell; it was then my Opinion that they were not. However it be, my Dream broke up at it, and has given me Occasion all my Life to reflect upon the fatal Consequences of following the Suggestions of Vanity.

  • VISION II.SPECTATOR. No. 501.

    HOW are we tortured with the Absence of what we covet to possess, when it appears to be lost to us! What Excursions does the Soul make in Imagination after it! and how does it turn into it self again, more foolishly fond and dejected, at the Disappointment! Our Grief, instead of having Recourse to Reason, which might restrain it, searches to find a further Nourishment. It calls upon Memory to relate the several Passages and Circumstances of Satisfactions which we formerly enjoyed; the Pleasures we[Page 192] purchased by those Riches that are taken from us; or the Power and Splendour of our departed Honours; or the Voice, the Words, the Looks, the Temper, and Affections of our Friends that are deceased. It needs must happen from hence, that the Passion should often swell to such a Size as to burst the Heart which contains it, if Time did not make these Circumstances less strong and lively, so that Reason should become a more equal Match for the Passion, or if another Desire which becomes more present did not overpower them with a livelier Representation. These are Thoughts which I had, when I fell into a kind of Vision upon this Subject, and may therefore stand for a proper Introduction to a Relation of it.

    I found my self upon a naked Shore, with Company whose afflicted Countenances witnessed their Conditions. Before us flowed a Water deep, silent, and called the River of Tears, which issuing from two Fountains on an upper Ground, encompassed an Island that lay before us. The Boat which plied in it was old and shattered, having been sometimes overset by the Impatience and Haste of single Passengers to arrive at the other side. This immediately was brought to us by Misfortune who steers it, and we were all preparing to take our Places, when there appeared a Woman of a mild and composed Behaviour, who began to deter us from it, by representing the Dangers which would attend our[Page 193] Voyage. Hereupon some who knew her for Patience, and some of those too who till then cry'd the loudest, were persuaded by her, and return'd back. The rest of us went in, and she (whose Good-nature would not suffer her to forsake Persons in Trouble) desired Leave to accompany us, that she might at least administer some small Comfort or Advice while we sailed. We were no sooner embarked but the Boat, was pushed off, the Sheet was spread; and being filled with Sighs, which are the Winds of that Country, we made a Passage to the farther Bank thro' several Difficulties of which the most of us seem'd utterly regardless.

    When we landed, we perceived the Island to be strangely over-cast with Fogs, which no Brightness could pierce, so that a kind of gloomy Horror sat always brooding over it. This had something in it very shocking to easy Tempers, insomuch that some others, whom Patience had by this time gain'd over, left us here, and privily convey'd themselves round the Verge of the Island to find a Ford by which she told them they might escape.

    For my part, I still went along with those who were for piercing into the Centre of the Place; and joining our selves to others whom we found upon the same Journey, we marched solemnly as at a Funeral, thro' bordering Hedges[Page 194] of Rosemary, and thro' a Grove of Yew-Trees, which love to over-shadow Tombs and flourish in Church-Yards. Here we heard on every side the Wailings and Complaints of several of the Inhabitants, who had cast themselves disconsolately at the Feet of Trees; and as we chanc'd to approach any of these, we might perceive them wringing their Hands, beating their Breasts, tearing their Hair, or after some other manner visibly agitated with Vexation. Our Sorrows were heightned by the Influence of what we heard and saw, and one of our Number was wrought up to such a Pitch of Wildness, as to talk of hanging himself upon a Bough which shot temptingly across the Path we travelled in; but he was restrain'd from it by the kind Endeavours of our abovementioned Companion.

    We had now gotten into the most dusky silent Part of the Island, and by the redoubled Sounds of Sighs, which made a doleful whistling in the Branches, the Thickness of Air which occasioned faintish Respiration, and the violent Throbbings of Heart which more and more affected us, we found that we approach'd the Grotto of Grief. It was a wide, hollow, and melancholy Cave, sunk deep in a Dale, and watered by Rivulets that had a Colour between Red and Black. These crept slow, and half congealed amongst its Windings, and mixed their heavy Murmur with the Echo of Groans that rolled thro' all the Passages. [Page 195]In the most retired part of it sat the doleful Being her self; the Path to her was strewed with Goads, Stings, and Thorns; and the Throne on which she sat was broken into a Rock with ragged Pieces pointing upwards for her to lean upon. A heavy Mist hung above her, her Head oppressed with it reclined upon her Arm: Thus did she reign over her disconsolate Subjects, full of her self to Stupidity, in eternal Pensiveness, and the profoundest Silence. On one side of her stood Dejection just dropping into a Swoon, and Paleness wasting to a Skeleton; on the other side were Care inwardly tormented with Imaginations, and Anguish suffering outward Troubles to suck the Blood from her Heart in the Shape of Vultures. The whole Vault had a genuine Dismalness in it, which a few scattered Lamps, whose blueish Flames arose and sunk in their Urns, discovered to our Eyes with Encrease. Some of us fell down, overcome and spent with what they suffered in the way, and were given over to those Tormentors that stood on either Hand of the Presence; others, galled and mortified with Pain, recover'd the Entrance, where Patience, whom we had left behind, was still waiting to receive us.

    With her (whose Company was now become more grateful to us by the want we had found of her) we winded round the Grotto, and ascended at the Back of it, out of the mournful Dale in[Page 196] whose Bottom it lay. On this Eminence we halted, by her Advice, to pant for Breath; and lifting our Eyes, which till then were fixed downwards, felt a sullen sort of Satisfaction, in observing thro' the Shades what Numbers had entred the Island. This Satisfaction, which appears to have Ill-nature in it, was excusable, because it happened at a time when we were too much taken up with our own Concern, to have Respect to that of others; and therefore we did not consider them as suffering, but our selves as not suffering in the most forlorn Estate. It had also the Groundwork of Humanity and Compassion in it, though the Mind was then too deeply engaged to perceive it; but as we proceeded onwards it began to discover it self, and from observing that others were unhappy, we came to question one another, when it was that we met, and what were the sad Occasions that brought us together. Then we heard our Stories, we compared them, we mutually gave and received Pity, and so by degrees became tolerable Company.

    A considerable Part of the troublesome Road was thus deceived; at length the Openings among the Trees grew larger, the Air seemed thinner, it lay with less Oppression upon us, and we could now and then discern Tracts in it of a lighter Greyness, like the Breakings of Day, short in Duration, much enlivening, and called in that Country Gleams of Amusement. Within a[Page 197] short while these Gleams began to appear more frequent, and then brighter and of a longer Continuance; the Sighs that hitherto filled the Air with so much Dolefulness, altered to the Sound of common Breezes, and in general the Horrors of the Island were abated.

    When we had arrived at last at the Ford by which we were to pass out, we met with those fashionable Mourners who had been ferried over along with us, and who being unwilling to go as far as we, had coasted by the Shore to find the Place, where they waited our coming; that by shewing themselves to the World only at that time when we did, they might seem also to have been among the troubles of the Grotto. Here the Waters, that rolled on the other side so deep and silent, were much dried up, and it was an easier Matter for us to wade over.

    The River being crossed, we were received upon the further Bank by our Friends and Acquaintance, whom Comfort had brought out to congratulate our Appearance in the World again. Some of these blamed us for staying so long away from them, others advised us against all Temptations of going back again; every one was cautious not to renew our Trouble, by asking any Particulars of the Journey; and all concluded, that in a Case[Page 198] of so much Affliction, we could not have made choice of a fitter Companion than Patience. Here Patience, appearing serene at her Praises, delivered us over to Comfort. Comfort smiled at his receiving the Charge; immediately the Sky purpled on that side to which he turned, and double Day at once broke in upon me.

  • VISION III.GUARDIAN. No. 56.

    Quid mentem traxisse polo, quid profuit altum
    Erexisse caput? pecudum simore pererrant.
    Claud.

    I Was considering last Night, when I could not sleep, how noble a Part of the Creation Man was design'd to be, and how distinguished in all his Actions above other Earthly Creatures. From whence I fell to take a view of the Change and Corruption which he has introduced into his own Condition, the groveling Appetites, the mean Characters of Sense, and wild Courses of Passions, that cast him from the Degree in which Providence had placed him, the debasing himself with Qualifications not his own, and his degenerating[Page 200] into a lower Sphere of Action. This inspired me with a mixture of Contempt and Anger; which however, was not so violent as to hinder the Return of Sleep, but grew confused as that came upon me, and made me end my Reflections with giving Mankind the opprobrious Names of Inconsiderate, Mad and Foolish.

    Here methought, where my waking Reason left the Subject, my Fancy pursued it in a Dream; and I imagined my self in a loud Soliloquy of Passion, railing at my Species, and walking hard to get rid of the Company I despised; when two Men who had over-heard me made up on either hand. These I observed had many Features in common, which might occasion the Mistake of the one for the other in those to whom they appear single, but I, who saw them together, could easily perceive, that tho' there was an Air of Severity in each, it was tempered with a natural Sweetness in the one, and by turns constrained or ruffled by the Designs of Malice in the other.

    I was at a loss to know the Reason of their joining me so briskly, when he whose Appearance displeased me most, thus addressed his Companion. Pray, Brother, let him alone, and we shall immediately see him transformed into a Tyger. This struck me with Horror, which the other perceived, and pitying my Disorder, bid me be of good Courage, for tho' I had been Savage in my Treatment of Mankind, (whom I should rather[Page 201] reform than rail against) he would, however, endeavour to rescue me from my Danger. At this I looked a little more chearful, and while I testified my Resignation to him, we saw the angry Brother fling away from us in a Passion for his Disappointment. Being now left to my Friend, I went back with him at his Desire, that I might know the Meaning of those Words which so affrighted me.

    As we went along, To inform you, says he, with whom you have this Adventure, my Name is Reproof and his Reproach, both born of the same Mother, but of different Fathers. Truth is our common Parent. Friendship, who saw her, fell in Love with her, and she being pleased with him, he begat me upon her; but a while after Enmity lying in Ambush for her, became the Father of him whom you saw along with me. The Temper of our Mother enclines us to the same sort of Business, the informing Mankind of their Faults; but the differing Complexions of our Fathers make us differ in our Designs and Company. I have a natural Benevolence in my Mind which engages me with Friends, and he a natural Impetuosity in his, which casts him among Enemies.

    As he thus discoursed we came to a Place where there were three Entrances into as many several Walks, which lay beside one another. We[Page 202] passed into the middlemost, a plain, strait, regular Walk, set with Trees, which added to the Beauty of the Place, but did not so close their Boughs over head as to exclude the Light from it. Here as we walked I was made to observe, how the Road on one hand was full of Rocks and Precipices, over which Reproach (who had already gotten thither) was furiously driving unhappy Wretches; the other side was all laid out in Gardens of gaudy Tulips, amongst whose Leaves the Serpents wreath'd, and at the end of every grassy Walk the Enchantress Flattery was weaving Bowers to lull Souls asleep in. We continued still walking on the middle way, 'till we arrived in a Building in which it terminated. This was formerly erected by Truth for a Watch Tower, from whence she took a View of the Earth, and, as she saw occasion, sent out Reproof, or even Reproach, for our Reformation. Over the Door I took notice that a Face was carved with a Heart upon the Lips of it, and presently call'd to Mind that this was the Antients Emblem of Sincerity. In the Entrance I met with Freedom of Speech and Complaisance, who had for a long time looked upon one another as Enemies; but Reproof has so happily brought them together, that they now act as Friends and Fellow-Agents in the same Family. Before I ascended up the Stairs, I had my Eyes purified by a Water which made me see extremely clear, and I think they said it sprung in a Pit, from whence (as Democritus had reported)[Page 203] they formerly brought up Truth, who had hid her self in it. I was then admitted to the upper Chamber of Prospect, which was called the Knowledge of Mankind; here the Window was no sooner opened but I perceived the Clouds to roll off and part before me, and a Scene of all the Variety of the World presented it self.

    But how different was Mankind in this View, from what it used to appear! Methought the very Shape of most of them was lost; some had the Heads of Dogs, others of Apes or Parrots, and in short, where-ever any one took upon him the inferior and unworthy Qualities of other Creatures, the Change of his Soul became visible in his Countenance. The strutting Pride of him who is endued with Brutality instead of Courage, made his Face shoot out in the Form of a Horse's; his Eyes became prominent, his Nostrils widened, and his Wig untying flowed down on one side of his Neck in a waving Mane. The Talkativeness of those who love the ill Nature of Conversation made them turn into Assemblies of Geese, their Lips hardened into Bills by eternal using, they gabbled for Diversion, they hiss'd in Scandal, and their Ruffles falling back on their Arms, a Succession of little Feathers appeared, which formed Wings for them to flutter with from one Visit to another. The Envious and Malicious lay on the Ground with the Heads of different sorts of Serpents, and not endeavouring to erect themselves,[Page 204] but meditating Mischief to others, they suck'd the Poison of the Earth, sharpened their Tongues to Stings upon the Stones, and rolled their Trains unperceivably beneath their Habits. The Hypocritical Oppressors wore the Faces of Crocodiles, their Mouths were Instruments of Cruelty, their Eyes of Deceit; they committed Wickedness, and bemoaned that there should be so much of it in the World; they devoured the Unwary, and wept over the Remains of them. The Covetous had so hook'd and worn their Fingers by counting Interest upon Interest, that they converted to the Claws of Harpies, and these they still were stretching out for more, yet seem'd unsatisfied with their Acquisitions. The Sharpers had the Looks of Camelions; they every Minute changed their Appearance, and fed on Swarms of Flies which fell as so many Cullies amongst them. The Bully seem'd a Dunghil Cock, he crested well, and bore his Comb aloft; he was beaten by almost every one, yet still sung for Triumph; and only the mean Coward prick'd up the Ears of a Hare to fly before him. Criticks were turned into Cats, whose Pleasure and Grumbling go together. Fops were Apes in embroider'd Jackets. Flatterers were curl'd Spaniels, fawning and crouching. The Crafty had the Face of a Fox, the Slothful of an Ass, the Cruel of a Wolf, the Ill-bred of a Bear, the Leachers were Goats, and the Gluttons Swine. Drunkenness was the only Vice that did not change the[Page 205] Face of its Professors into that of another Creature; but this I took to be far from a Privilege, for these two Reasons; because it sufficiently deforms them of it self, and because none of the lower Ranks of Beings is guilty of so foolish an Intemperance.

    As I was taking a View of these Representations of Things, without any more Order than is usual in a Dream, or in the Confusion of the World it self, I perceived a Concern within me for what I saw; my Eyes began to moisten, and as if the Virtue of that Water with which they were purified was lost for a time, by their being touched with that which arose from a Passion, the Clouds immediately began to gather again, and close from either hand upon the Prospect. I then turned towards my Guide, who addressed himself to me after this manner. You have seen the Condition of Mankind when it descends from its Dignity; now therefore guard your self from that Degeneracy by a modest Greatness of Spirit on one side, and a conscious Shame on the other. Endeavour also with a Generosity of Goodness to make your Friends aware of it; let them know what Defects you perceive are growing upon them; handle the Matter as you see Reason, either with the Airs of severe or humorous Affection; sometimes plainly describing the Degeneracy in its full proper Colours, or at other times letting them know that if they proceed as they have begun,[Page 206] you give them to such a Day or so many Months to turn Bears, Wolves, or Foxes, &c. Neither neglect your more remote Acquaintance, where you see any worthy and susceptible of Admonition; expose the Beasts whose Qualities you see them putting on, where you have no mind to engage with their Persons. The Possibility of their applying this is very obvious: The Egyptians saw it so clearly, that they made the Pictures of Animals explain their Minds to one another instead of Writing; and indeed it is hardly to be missed, since Aesop took them out of their Mute Condition, and taught them to speak for themselves with relation to the Actions of Mankind.

  • VISION IV.GUARDIAN. No. 66.

    THERE is a Sett of Mankind, who are wholly employed in the Ill-natured Office of gathering up a Collection of Stories that lessen the Reputation of others, and spreading them Abroad with a certain Air of Satisfaction. Perhaps, indeed, an innocent and unmeaning Curiosity, a Desire of being informed concerning those we live with, or a Willingness to profit by Reflection upon the Actions of others, may sometimes afford an Excuse, or sometimes a Defence, for Inquisitiveness; but certainly it is beyond all Excuse,[Page 208] a Transgression against Humanity, to carry the Matter further, to tear off the Dressings, as I may say, from the Wounds of a Friend, and expose them to the Air in cruel Fits of Diversion; and yet we have something more to bemoan, an Outrage of an higher Nature, which mankind is guilty of when they are not content to spread the Stories of Folly, Frailty and Vice, but even enlarge them, or invent new ones, and blacken Characters that we may appear ridiculous or hateful to one another. From such Practices as these it happens, that some feel a Sorrow, and others are agitated with a Spirit of Revenge; that Scandals or Lies are told, because another has told such before; that Resentments and Quarrels arise, and Injuries are given, received, and multiplied, in a Scene of Vengeance.

    All this I have often observed with abundance of Concern; and having a perfect Desire to further the Happiness of Mankind; I lately set my self to consider the Causes from whence such Evils arise, and the Remedies which may be applied. Whereupon I shut my Eyes to prevent Distraction from outward Objects, and a while after shot away, upon an Impulse of Thought, into the World of Ideas, where abstracted Qualities became visible in such Appearances as were agreeable to each of their Natures.

    That part of the Country, where I happened[Page 209] to light, was the most noisy that I had ever known. The Winds whistled, the Leaves rustled, the Brooks rumbled, the Birds chatter'd, the Tongues of Men were heard, and the Echo mingled something of every Sound in its Repetition, so that there was a strange Confusion and Uproar of Sounds about me. At length, as the Noise still encreased, I could discern a Man habited like a Herald (and as I afterwards understood) called Novelty, that came forward proclaiming a Solemn Day to be kept at the House of Common Fame. Immediately behind him advanced three Nymphs, who had monstrous Appearances. The first of these was Curiosity, habited like a Virgin, and having an hundred Ears upon her Head to serve in her Enquiries. The Second of these was Talkativeness, a little better grown, she seemed to be like a young Wife, and had an hundred Tongues to spread her Stories. The Third was Censoriousness, habited like a Widow, and surrounded with an hundred Squinting Eyes of a malignant Influence, which so obliquely darted on all around, that it was impossible to say which of them had brought in the Informations she boasted of. These, as I was informed, had been very instrumental in preserving and rearing Common Fame, when upon her Birth-day she was shuffled into a Crowd, to escape the search which Truth might have made after her and her Parents. Curiosity found her there, Talkativeness convey'd her away, and Censoriousness so nursed her up,[Page 210] that in a short time she grew to a prodigious Size, and obtained an Empire over the Universe; wherefore the Power, in Gratitude for these Services, has since advanced them to her highest Employments. The next who came forward in this Procession was a light Damsel, called Credulity, who carried behind them the Lamp, the Silver Vessel with a Spout, and other Instruments proper for this Solemn Occasion. She had formerly seen these three together, and conjecturing from the number of their Ears, Tongues and Eyes, that they might be the proper Genii of Attention, Familiar Converse, and Ocular Demonstration, she from that time gave her self up to attend them. The last who followed were some who had closely muffled themselves in upper Garments, so that I could not discern who they were; but just as the foremost of them was come up, I am glad, says she, calling me by my Name, to meet you at this time, stay close by me, and take a strict Observation of all that passes. Her Voice was sweet and commanding, I thought I had somewhere heard it; and from her, as I went along, I learned the Meaning of every thing which offered.

    We now marched forward thro' the Rookery of Rumours, which flew thick and with a terrible din all around us. At length we arrived at the House of Common Fame, where a Hecatomb of Reputations was that Day to fall for her Pleasure. The House stood upon an Eminence, having a thousand[Page 211] Passages to it, and a thousand whispering Holes for the Conveyance of Sound. The Hall we entered was formed with the Art of a Musick-Chamber for the Improvement of Noises. Rest and Silence are banished the Place. Stories of different Natures wander in light Flocks all about, sometimes Truths and Lies, or sometimes Lies themselves clashing against one another. In the middle stood a Table painted after the manner of the remotest Asiatick Countries, upon which the Lamp, the Silver Vessel, and Cups of a white Earth, were planted in order. Then dried Herbs were brought, collected for the Solemnity in Moonshine, and Water being put to them, there was a greenish Liquor made, to which they added the Flower of Milk, and an Extraction from the Canes of America, for performing a Libation to the infernal Powers of Mischief. After this, Curiosity, retiring to a withdrawing-Room, brought forth the Victims, being to Appearance a Sett of small waxen Images, which she laid upon the Table one after another. Immediately Talkativeness gave each of them the Name of some one, whom for the Time they were to represent; and Censoriousness stuck them all about with black Pins, still pronouncing at every one she stuck, something to the Prejudice of the Persons represented. No sooner were these Rites performed, and Incantations uttered, but the Sound of a Speaking Trumpet was heard in the Air, by which they knew the Deity of the Place was propitiated and[Page 212] assisting. Upon this the Sky grew darker, a Storm arose, and Murmurs, Sighs, Groans, Cries, and the Words of Grief or Resentment were heard within it. Thus the three Sorceresses discovered, that they, whose Names they had given to the Images, were already affected with what was done to them in Effigie. The Knowledge of this was received with loudest the Laughter, and in many Congratulatory Words they applauded one another's Wit and Power.

    As Matters were at this high Point of Disorder, the muffled Lady, whom I attended on, being no longer able to endure such barbarous Proceedings, threw off her upper Garment of Reserve, and appeared to be Truth. As soon as she had confessed her self present, the Speaking-Trumpet ceas'd to Sound, the Sky cleared up, the Storm abated, the Noises which were heard in it ended, the Laughter of the Company was over, and a serene Light, till then unknown to the Place, was diffused around it. At this the detected Sorceresses endeavoured to escape in a Cloud which I saw began to thicken about them, but it was soon dispersed, their Charms being controled and prevailed over by the superior Divinity. For my Part I was exceedingly glad to see it so, and began to consider what Punishments she would inflict upon them. I fancied it would be proper to cut off Curiosity's Ears, and fix them to the Eaves of Houses, to nail the Tongue of Talkativeness to[Page 213] Indian Tables, and to put out the Eyes of Censoriousness with a Flash of her Light. In respect of Credulity I had indeed some little Pity, and had I been Judge she might, perhaps, have escaped with a hearty Reproof.

    But I soon found that the discerning Judge had other Designs, she knew them for such as will not be destroyed intirely while Mankind is in Being, and yet ought to have a Brand and Punishment affixed to them that they may be avoided. Wherefore she took a Seat for Judgment, and had the Criminals brought forward by Shame ever blushing, and Trouble with a Whip of many Lashes, two Phantoms who had dogged the Procession in Disguise, and waited 'till they had an Authority from Truth to lay Hands upon them. Immediately then she ordered Curiosity and Talkativeness to be fettered together, that the one should never suffer the other to rest, nor the other ever let her remain undiscovered. Light Credulity she linkt to Shame at the Tormenter's own Request, who was pleased to be thus secure that her Prisoner could not escape; and this was done partly for her Punishment, and partly for her Amendment. Censoriousness was also in like manner begged by Trouble, and had her assign'd for an eternal Companion. After they were thus chain'd with one another, by the Judge's Order, she drove them from the Presence to wander for ever thro' the World, with Novelty stalking before them.

    [Page 214]

    The Cause being now over, she retreated from sight within the Splendor of her own Glory, which leaving the House it had brightned, the Sounds that were proper to the Place began to be as loud and confused as when we entered, and there being no longer a clear distinguished Appearance of any Objects represented to me, I returned from the Excursion I had made in Fancy.

  • VISION V.

    WHatever Industry and Eagerness the modern Discoverers have shewn for the Knowledge of new Countries, there yet remains an ample Field in the Creation to which they are utter Strangers, and which all the Methods of Travelling hitherto invented, will never bring them acquainted with. Of this I can give a very particular Instance in an Accident which lately happened to me.

    As I was on the 6th of this Instant, being Febr. 1715, walking with my Eyes cast upward, I fell into a Reflection on the vast Tracts of Air which appear'd before me as uninhabited. [Page 216]And wherefore, said I to my self, shou'd all this Space be created? Can it only be for an odd Bird to fly through, as now and then a Man may pass a Desart? Or are there also Kingdoms with their particular Polities, and People of a Species which we know nothing of, ordain'd to live in it.

    It was in this Manner I continued my Thought, when my Feet forsook the Level, and I was insensibly mounted in the Air, till I arriv'd at a footing as firm and level as what I had left. But with what Surprise did I find my self among Creatures distinct from us in Shape and Customs?

    The Inhabitants are of a small Stature, below those which History describes for Pigmies. The tallest of them exceed not fourteen or fifteen Inches, and the least are hardly three. This difference proceeds only from their Growth before they are brought to Light; for after we never observe them to grow, unless it please their Parents, who have this uncommon Method of enabling them: They recall them to the Womb, where having been for some Time, they receive an Addition to their Bulk, then go back to their Houses, and continue at a Stand as they did before. The Experiment has been often try'd with Success, but some have suffered extremely by undergoing it.

    [Page 217]

    Their Skins are like the antient Britains, all drawn over with a Variety of Figures. The Colour made use of for this end, is generally Black. I have indeed observ'd in some of the Religious, and Lawyers of the Country, Red here and there intermingl'd, tho' not so commonly of late. They tell me too, they often us'd to paint with all Colours; and I visited two or three of the old Inhabitants, who were adorn'd in that Fashion: But this is now disused, since the new Inventions, by which the use of a black Fountain that belongs to that Country, is render'd more useful and serviceable.

    The Cloaths in which they go clad, are the Skins of Beasts, worn by some Plain, by others with Figures wrought upon them. Gold is also made use of by some, to beautify their Apparel; but very seldom Silver, unless, as Buckles are by us, for fastening the Garment before. I have seen some of them go like Seamen in thin blue Shirts, others like Indians in a party-colour'd loose kind of Apparel, and others who they told me were the Politicians of the Country, go about stark naked.

    The Manner of dressing them is this: At first when they come into the World, they have a Suit given them, which if it do not fit[Page 218] exactly, is not, as with us, fitted up again, but the Children are in a cruel Manner cut and squeez'd to bring them to its Proportion. Yet this they seem not much to regard, provided their principal Parts are not affected. When the Dress is thus settled on them, they are clad for Life, it being seldom their Custom to alter it, or put it off: In short, they live in it Night and Day, and wear it to Rags rather than part with it, being sure of the same Torture, and a greater Danger if they shou'd be dress'd a second Time. I have further taken Notice, that they delight to go open Breasted, most of them shewing their Bosoms speckled. Some Lawyers indeed wear them quite White, perhaps for Distinction sake, or to be known at a Distance. But the finest Shew, is among the Beaux and Ladies, who mightily affect something of Gold, both before and behind them.

    Food I never saw them eat; they being a People, who, as I observed, live in Air: Their Houses are all single and high, having no back Rooms, but frequently seven or eight Stories, which are all separate Houses above one another. They have one Gate to their City, and generally no Doors to their Houses; tho' I have sometimes seen them have particular Doors, and even made of Glass, where the Inhabitants have been observ'd to stand many[Page 219] Days, that their fine Apparel may be seen thro' them. If at any time they lye down, which they do when they come from their Habitations (as if coming Abroad were their greatest Fatigue) they will lie together in Heaps without receiving Hurt: Though the soundest Sleep they get, is when they can have Dust enough to cover them over.

    The Females amongst them are but few, nothing being there produced by a Marriage of Sexes. The Males are of a different Strength or Endowment of Parts, some having Knowledge in an extream Degree, and others none at all; yet at the same Time, they are mighty Pretenders to instruct others. Their Names, (for as many as wou'd discover them to me) I observ'd to be the very same as ours are upon Earth; I met a few who made theirs a Mystery, but why, I am yet to learn. They are so communicative, that they will tell all the Knowledge they boast, if a Stranger apply himself to their Conversation: And this may be worth his while, if he considers that all Languages, Arts, and Sciences, are profest amongst them. I think I may say it without Vanity, that I knew a certain Talisman, with proper Figures and Characters inscrib'd, whereby their greatest People may be charm'd, brought to reside with a Man, and serve him like a Familiar in the Conduct of Life.

    [Page 220]

    There is no such thing as fighting amongst them, but their Controversies are determin'd by Words, wherein they seldom own themselves conquer'd, yet proceed no further than two or three Replies: Perhaps indeed two others take up their Neighbour's Quarrel, but then they desist too after the same Manner; sometimes however, Blows have ensu'd upon their Account, though not amongst them: In such a Case they have descended to inspire Mankind with their Sentiments, and chosen Champions from among us, in order to decide it.

    The Time of their Life is very different, some dye as soon as born, and others in their Youth; some get a new Lease of Life by their entring into the Womb again, and if any weather it out to a hundred Years, they generally live on to an extreme Age. After which it is remarkable, that instead of growing weaker as we do, by Time, they increase in Strength, and become at last so confirm'd in Health, that it is the Opinion of their Country, they never can perish while the World remains.

    The Sicknesses which may take them off, besides what happens from their natural Weakness of Body, are of different Sorts. One is over-moisture, which affecting their Mansions, makes them lose their Complexions, become deform'd, and[Page 221] rot away insensibly: This is often obviated by their not keeping too much within Doors. Another is the Worms, which prey upon their Bowels: If they be maim'd by Accidents, they become, like us, so far useless; and that Maim will some time or other be the Occasion of their Ruin. However, they perish by these Means only in Appearance, and like Spirits, who vanish in one Place, to be seen in another. But as Men dye of Passions, so Disesteem is what the most nearly touches them; then they withdraw into, Holes and Corners, and consume away in Darkness. Or if they are kept alive a few Days by the force of Spices, it is but a short Reprieve from their perishing to Eternity; without any Honour, but that instead of a Burial, a small Pyre of Past shou'd be erected over them, while they, like the antient Romans, are reduc'd to Ashes.

    N. B. This Vision is to be understood of a Library of Books.

  • FINIS.
  • ERRATA, In Pervigilio Veneris.

    Pag. 48. vers. 2. pro spameo, lege spumeo. p. 50. v. 10. muae, lege mane. p. 56. v. 3. Detinent, & tota nox, lege Decinent — p. 64 .v. 4. Explicat acnii latus, lege Explicant tauri latus. p. 64. v. 9. Adsonant Terei puella, lege Adsonat Terei puella.

  • INDEX.

    • HESIOD, or the Rise of Woman. Page 1
    • Song. Page 18, 19, 21
    • Anacreontick. Page 23, 28
    • A Fairy Tale, in the ancient English Style. Page 32
    • Pervigilium Veneris. Page 47
    • The Vigil of Venus. Page 47
    • Battle of the Frogs and Mice. Page 71
    • To Mr. Pope. Page 105
    • Part of the first Canto of the Rape of the Lock Translated. Page 112
    • Health; an Eclogue. Page 116
    • The Flies; an Eclogue. Page 122
    • An Elegy. To an old Beauty. Page 128
    • The Book-Worm. Page 134
    • An Allegory on Man. Page 141
    • In Imitation of some French Verses. Page 148
    • A Night-piece on Death. Page 152
    • A Hymn to Contentment. Page 158
    • The Hermit. Page 164
    [Page]
    VISIONS.
    • VISIONS I. Page 183
    • Vision II. Page 191
    • Vision III. Page 199
    • Vision IV. Page 207
    • Vision V. Page 215
  • BOOKS printed for BERNARD LINTOT.

    • MR. Pope's Homer in 6 Vol. 4to Royal, fol. and 12mo.
    • — His Miscellaneous Poems. —
    • Miscellany Poems, by his Grace of Buckingham, &c.
    • Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany Poems.
    • Mr. Fenton's Miscellaneous Poems.
    • Dr. King's Miscellanies, 2 Vol.
    • — His Art of Cookery, in Imitation of Horace's Art of Poetry.
    • — His Art of Love, in Imitation of Ovid.
    • Dryden's Art of Painting, Corrected by Mr. Pope, and Mr. Jervas.
    • Wiqueforts complete Ambassador.
    • Dr. Fiddes's Body of Divinity, 2 Vol.
    • Dr. Keill's Astronomy, Corrected by Dr. Halley.
    • The Works of Chaucer, in large and small Paper fol. with Cutts.
    • Coke's Comment on Littleton The 11th Edition.
    • Laurence of Gardening, with Cuts.
    • James of Gardening, with Cuts.